Finding The Correct Size and Measure For Industrial Design

Biometry, Ergonomics and Morphology For Design

FINDING THE CORRECT SIZE & MEASURE: BIOMETRY, ERGONOMICS & MORPHOLOGY FOR DESIGN It is very important to use the correct dimensions and forms while designing industrial products. This article explains how we can come up with the right dimensions, measures and forms of industrial products. An important element in good product design is knowing the requirements for measures, optimal dimensions and demanded sizes, and to design the object with respecto to this restrictions. So how do we learn these dimensions, measures, forms and sizes? The most two common approaches are 1. Derive dimensions from existing products, by measuring them and discovering the “popular” sizes and measures. all you nead is a measure or caliper, and some products. (Fig.1) 2. Derive dimensions from the target users’s anthropometric properties relavant to function. (Fig.2) D6: SIX DRIVERS OF INDUSTRIAL DESIGN FORM ERGONOMY, ECONOMICS, FUNCTION, MARKET, TECHNOLOGY, LAW & STANDARDS 1. Ergonomic Drivers: data that defines the form of an object based on the ergonomics of the subject. 2. Functional Drivers: data that defines the form of an object based on the functional requirements. 3. Market Drivers: data that defines the form of an object based on the expectations of the consumers. 4. Economics Drivers: data that defines the form of an object based on economic requirements such as efficiency, cost, etc. 5. Technology Drivers: data that defines the form of an object based on the choice of materials and production technology. 6. Law & Standards Drivers: restrictions on the form of a design required by the legislations or standards.D6.1: ERGONOMIC DRIVERS DEFINING THE FORM BASED ON BIOMETRIC DATA Ergonomy is one of the strongest drivers of form. Objects are meant to be designed for comfortable use by the user. Ergonomy is especially a very strong driver of form for design of furnitures, household items, vehicles and machinery. For example, lets imagine we would like to design a bottle that would fit your hand perfectly. Than we measure our hand, and design a bottle that would fit it well. But it is not just about the size either, we should design the bottle such that it is easy to grasp, and harder to slip from our hands. It should not only fit, but must fit comfortably. You can measure the target customer body in detail, or you can use a standard reference book: measures of man and woman. D6.2: FUNCTIONAL DRIVERS DEFINING THE FORM BASED ON FUNCTION OF THE OBJECT What we want to look here is the archtypes: the initial idea of the form “of a function.”. It is important because an object having an easy to understand standard form is easier to use & sell because we are already accustomed to it. They say form follows function, it is true in most cases; but the same function can be reached within a variety of forms. So we want to be slightly more specific.what is a bottle for example: it is a container for liquids. So as long as something can contain a liquid for a long time, iis it a bottle.?. Not true. Lets imagine a water bottle: A good water bottle should for example keep the water clean (closed form), should indicate the amount left (transparency) easy to carry (ribs), easy to drink or close (cap), etc. These functional requirements impose the form and parts. Fig.5 Poorly contained liquids could potentially spoil. Your product design efforts.D6.3: MARKET DRIVERS DEFINING THE FORM BASED ON THE PREFERENCES OF USERS Its always about delivering what is being demanded by the target customer group. Especially the form of industrially designed objects are required to yield to the preferences of end-users, because the products must sell, and not only sell, they must sell to the masses, as they are mass-produced industrial products. Some of the tools for gathering information are observations, surveys, focus group tests, lead user analysis etc. There are many consulting companies that also sell reports about the market preferences. Trends are important: form and therefore measures can highly be effected by what is hip this year, and a good designer must always have an eye on what is being done by the others, or you would be designing retro looking objects without actually noticing yourself. If most of the people in the market prefers a water bottle to be in pet, it should be in pet. (Fig.6)D6.4: ECONOMY DRIVERS DEFINING THE FORM BASED ON CONCEPTS OF ECONOMY In the end, it all comes to returns on investment. A good design is supposed to add economic value to an industrial product. In 2 ways. 1. Added economic value by making the product more desirable (increasing demand) thus, increasing the sales price, and profits. 2. Added economic value by making the product more efficient, or cheaper to produce, thus decreasing the production costs, and increasing the profits. So, the form can be effected by 1: ways to make it more desirable. 2. Ways to make it cheaper to produce. To make it cheaper to produce, we need to increase efficiency in production, and decrease the waste. We must utilize the materials in the best way possible. We must optimize the design based on the production technology and cost restrictions. Given millions of products with the same function, the cheaper to produce, and the beautiful survives the market, but the one that is both beautiful and cheaper to produce becomes the market leader. (Fig.7)D6.5: TECHNOLOGY DRIVERS: DEFINING THE FORM BASED ON THE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY The production technology imposes a lot of restrictions and of course also possiblities and opportunities for the form and measures of an industrial product. For example the dimension or power of the production machinery can impose a restriction. Materials used for production can also provide other restrictions, and possibilites as well. For example: the water bottle: use glass to make it transparent and clean looking, use pet to make it transparent and easy to carry. Measures will be different: glass must be thicker than the pet, it will also be heavier. If you are working for a company, there usually is an existing production technology or material of choice which you should take into consideration. While designing, So you have designed the next big think, but it is impossible to produce? (Fig.8)D6.6: LAW & STANDARDS DRIVERS: DEFINING THE FORM BASED ON THE LAWS AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS There are some certain laws, certifications and standard requirements for many industrial objects. For instance office chairs, car seats, security products, food packaging. These standards, lawas and certifications requires the producers to produce objects that match the criteria for materials, mechanisms, ergonomic requirements etc. Which all effect the form, and thus size and measure of designs. A good designer should always check the legal requirements when designing an industrial product. Otherwise, not only you have a poorly designed object, but it will also be illegal. Depending on the industry, you should check for stanards and laws, such as iso-standards. The standards can also help you reduce production and development costs as well. By following standards you also avoid possible hazards in advance!. (Fig.9)BEST PRACTICE APPROACH DRIVING FORM & MEASUREMENTS FROM OTHER INDUSTRIAL OBJECTS. An easy way to define form, material and function is to follow the best pratices: driving measurements from other objects through analysis of form, function, parts and materials. Of course this is not our preferred way for destructive innovation, however, it indeed is our preferred way for industrial design for mass production goods. The only tools you need is an insightful eye, a measure preferably a caliper, and a spreadsheet. You start by finding the average dimensions, popular materials and common forms of products sold in the market. Sometimes it is better to pick 2-3 products that are the best: and use these products to define the sizes and measures of your own designs. Procedure 1. Collect specimens 2. Analyse form and function 3. Create archetype Caliper is your best friend for small objects. For larger objects, use a measure. (fig.10)COLLECTING SPECIMENS HOW TO FIND THE MOST POPULAR FORMS FOR DESIGN. The most popular forms are divided into two: the most selling forms, and the most advertised forms. We should aim for the most selling forms. Most selling forms are usually available in large stores. Depending on the product type, we should be visiting a supermarket, a cash & carry store or an outlet. We are looking for places where many varieties of a product exist. For example, imagine you need to design new water bottle packaging, where will you look at? You go to a supermarket and check the shelves. It is literally an exhibition of forms. Alternatively you could perform an image search in internet, or check for products that you already have with you, in your house for example. You find the targetted archtypes at mass consumption stores and public places. (Fig.11)FORM & FUNCTION: ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGY & REASON PARTS & MATERIALS: LIST OF COMPONENTS AND PROPERTIES Parts, Forms and Functions: Form is effected by choice of material, physical limitations,, economic requirements and market expectations. when designing an object, a good way to start is to observe best practices and analyze why different parts have different forms and sizes. For example, when we analyze a sample bottle (Fig.12): Cap: the cap is almost has a standard form and dimension Engrave: created both to provide additional structural support and aesthetical look and feel. Top blob: provides additional support and ease of grasp. Label: graphic area should be smoother in order to stick the label. Arc: the waist adds stability and helps easier grasp of bottle. Ridges : curved horizontal ribs provide structural strength and style to bottle. Base: having legs the bottle to be more stable and taller. Cap: the cap is usually made of opaque polypropylene / pp. Label: is either made in paper or transparent plastic Body: the body is made of transparent polyethylene terephthalate / petLEARNING MEASURES MEASURE DIMENSIONS FOR EACH OF THE SPECIFIC PARTS After our analysis, we use the caliper to measure the dimensions for each of the different parts, and also the bounding box. We create a spreadsheet table where we enter these details, and we calculate the average values to have an understanding. This way, we know the maximum and minimum dimensions of the object, in addition to popular features, material choices and form options. The averages gives us the exact measures of the archtype. The archtype is not necessarily the best design or even a good design, but it provides insights for dimensions, popular form choices and parts only. We can start designing by first drawing the archtype, and then drawing the maximums and minimums for each components, as a guidelines of form which we would prefer. We create a spreadsheet and calculate averages. (Fig.13)USING THE ARCHTYPE: THE ARCHTYPE AS A GUIDELINE FOR DESIGN A visual way to present the dominant features is by putting the silhouettes on top of each other and applying transparency. This could also be done in 3d. The idea is to see actually what the standard bottle is about. After we know the standard bottle, the maximums and minimums, we can design an object that will be higly easy to realize by confirming in to these limitations. Any bottle that is within the safe zone (Fig.15) will be most probably be okay. On the other hand, the design will be better from the production and economic sense if it is kind of average of all (Fig.14). These averages are intended for you as a guideline, they do not guarantee a good or beautiful design. But they can help you design an object that fits the regulations, and answers to market expectations.FAST METHODS TO GATHER MORPHOLOGICAL DATA FOR DESIGN 1. Books: some “how to design x” type of books, gives insights about the standard dimensions and measures of objects. 2. Product Catalogs: they usually have technical specifications of products, such as dimensions and sizes. most of them are accessible online. 3. Patents: some products give detailed dimensions, or atleast the form of the objects. use an online patent search. it is clever to use them as you could also learn the most common mechanisms. 4. Free 3d drawings of the objects, if done to scale. you could search for existing designs to use them as backdrop or guidelines. 5. Companies, you can ask the company to tell you the desired measures for the new products that they would like to develop.ABOUT : THIS PRESENTATION This presentation is provided free of charge, and it is a courtesy of omcdesign studios. We are an international multidisciplinary design consulting company based in Italy. We design better products / or improve existing products such that it costs cheaper to produce and sells at a higher price or volume. We are composed of multiple studios specialized in different aspects and fields of design, marketing, engineering, prototyping and communication. To learn our clientele, to know about our studios, and our designs and for more information please do visit: Http://www.omcomc.com Exerpt:FINDING THE CORRECT SIZE & MEASURE: BIOMETRY, ERGONOMICS & MORPHOLOGY FOR DESIGN It is very important to use the correct dimensions and forms while designing industrial products. This article explains how we can come up with the right dimensions, measures and forms of industrial products. An important element in good product design is knowing the requirements for measures, optimal dimensions and demanded sizes, and to design the object with respecto to this restrictions. So how do ..

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